CMADS introduction
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The China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) is a public datasets developed by Prof. Dr. Xianyong Meng from China Agricultural University (CAU). CMADS incorporated technologies of LAPS/STMAS and was constructed using multiple technologies and scientific methods, including loop nesting of data, projection of resampling models, and bilinear interpolation. The CMADS series of datasets can be used to drive various hydrological models, such as SWAT, the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and the Storm Water Management model (SWMM). It also allows users to conveniently extract a wide range of meteorological elements for detailed climatic analyses. Data sources for the CMADS series include nearly 40,000 regional automatic stations under China’s 2,421 national automatic and business assessment centres (Meng et al.,2017a). This ensures that the CMADS datasets have wide applicability within the country, and that data accuracy was vastly improved.

     The CMADS series of datasets has undergone finishing and correction to match the specific format of input and driving data of SWAT models. This reduces the volume of complex work that model builders have to deal with. An index table of the various elements encompassing all of East Asia was also established for SWAT models. This allows the models to utilize the datasets directly, thus eliminating the need for any format conversion or calculations using weather generators. Consequently, significant improvements to the modelling speed and output accuracy of SWAT models were achieved (Meng et al.,2017b).

     The CMADS integration of air temperature, air pressure, humidity, and wind velocity data was mainly achieved through the LAPS/STMAS system. Precipitation data were stitched using CMORPH’s global precipitation products and the National Meteorological Information Center’s data of China (which is based on CMORPH’s integrated precipitation products). The latter contains daily precipitation records observed at 2,400 national meteorological stations and the CMORPH satellite’s inversion precipitation products.The inversion algorithm for incoming solar radiation at the ground surface makes use of the discrete longitudinal method by Stamnes et al (1988) to calculate radiation transmission (Shi et al., 2011). The resolutions for CMADS V1.0, V1.1, V1.2, and V1.3 were 1/3°, 1/4°, 1/8°, and 1/16°, respectively (Meng et al.,2016).


     The China Meteorological Assimilation Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) was completed over the 9 year period of 1980.01.01 through 2018.12.31 and has been used in many watersheds over East asia (Meng et al.,2017b; Cao et al.,2018; Liu et al.,2018; Shao et al.,2018; Vu et al.,2018; Zhao et al., 2018; Zhou et al., 2018; Gao et al.,2018; Tian et al.,2018; Xu et al., 2019; Yuan et al.,2019;Zhang et al.,2020). The current CMADS will be extended as real time product in the future.

References:

1.Meng, X.Y.; Wang, H.; Chen, J. Profound Impacts of the China Meteorological Assimilation Dataset for SWAT model (CMADS). Water. 11, 832. (2019).

2.Meng,X.Y.,Wang, H.; Shi, C.; Wu, Y.; Ji, X.Establishment and Evaluation of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT Model (CMADS). Water .10,1555. (2018).

3.Meng, X.; Zhang, X.; Yang, M.; Wang, H.; Chen, J.; Pan, Z.; Wu, Y.  Application and Evaluation of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT Model (CMADS) in Poorly Gauged Regions in Western China. Water. 11, 2171.(2019).

4.Meng,X.Y.,Wang, H., et al. Investigating spatiotemporal changes of the land-surface processes in Xinjiang using high-resolution CLM3.5 and CLDAS: Soil temperature. Scientific Reports. 7, 13286. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-10665-8. (2017a).  

5.Meng,X.Y.,Wang, H. Significance of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT Model (CMADS) of East Asia. Water. 9, (10),765. doi:10.3390/w9100765. (2017b).

6.Meng,X.Y.,Dan, L.Y. & Liu, Z.-H. Energy balance-based SWAT model to simulate the mountain snowmelt and runoff – taking the application in Juntanghu watershed (China) as an example. J. Mt. Sci. 12(2), 368-381 (2015).

7.Stamnes, K., Tsay, S.C., Wiscombe, W. & Jayaweera, K. Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media. Appl. Opt. 27(12), 2502-2509 doi: (1988).

8.Shi, C. X., Xie, Z. H., Qian, H., Liang, M. L. & Yang, X. C. China land soil moisture EnKF data assimilation based on satellite remote sensing data. Sci. China Earth Sci. 54(9),1430-1440 (2011).

9.Meng, X., Wang, H., Chen, J. et al. High-resolution simulation and validation of soil moisture in the arid region of Northwest China. Scientific Reports. 9, 17227.(2019).

10.Vu, T.T.; Li, L.; Jun, K.S..Evaluation of MultiSatellite Precipitation Products for Streamflow Simulations: A Case Study for the Han River Basin in the Korean Peninsula, East Asia. Water.10, 642.(2018).

11.Liu, J.; Shanguan, D.; Liu, S.; Ding, Y.Evaluation and Hydrological Simulation of CMADS and CFSR Reanalysis Datasets in the QinghaiTibet Plateau. Water.10, 513.(2018).

12.Cao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Yang, M.Application of SWAT Model with CMADS Data to Estimate Hydrological Elements and Parameter Uncertainty Based on SUFI-2 Algorithm in the Lijiang River Basin, China. Water.10, 742.(2018).

13.Shao, G.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, D.; Yu, B.; Zhu, J.The Impacts of Climate Variability and Land Use Change on Streamflow in the Hailiutu River Basin. Water.10, 814.(2018).

14.Zhou, S.; Wang, Y.; Chang, J.; Guo, A.; Li, Z.Investigating the Dynamic Influence of Hydrological Model Parameters on Runoff Simulation Using Sequential Uncertainty Fitting-2-Based Multilevel-Factorial-Analysis Method. Water. 10, 1177. (2018).

15.Gao, X.; Zhu, Q.; Yang, Z.; Wang, H.Evaluation and Hydrological Application of CMADS against TRMM 3B42V7, PERSIANN-CDR, NCEP-CFSR, and Gauge-Based Datasets in Xiang River Basin of China. Water. 10, 1225. (2018)

16.Tian, Y.; Zhang, K.; Xu, Y.-P.; Gao, X.; Wang, J. Evaluation  of  Potential  Evapo-transpiration Based on CMADS Reanalysis Dataset over China. Water. 10, 1126.(2018).

17.Qin, G.; Liu, J.; Wang, T.; Xu, S.; Su, G.An Integrated Methodology to Analyze the Total Nitrogen Accumulation in a Drinking Water Reservoir Based on the SWAT Model Driven by CMADS: A Case Study of the Biliuhe Reservoir in Northeast China. Water. 10, 1535. (2018).

18.Guo, B.; Zhang, J.; Xu, T.; Croke, B.; Jakeman, A.; Song, Y.; Yang, Q.; Lei, X.; Liao, W. Applicability Assessment and Uncertainty Analysis of Multi-Precipitation Datasets for the Simulation of Hydrologic Models. Water. 10, 1611(2018).

19.Dong, N.P., Yang, M.X., Meng,X.Y.,Liu, X.et al. CMADS-Driven Simulation and Analysis of Reservoir Impacts on the Streamflow with a Simple Statistical Approach. Water. 11(1), 178 (2018).

20. Guo, D.; Wang, H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, G. Evaluation and Analysis of Grid Precipitation Fusion Products in Jinsha River Basin Based on China Meteorological Assimilation Datasets for the SWAT Model. Water. 11, 253 (2019).
21.Yuan, Z.; Xu, J.; Meng, X.; Wang, Y.; Yan, B. Impact of Climate Variability on Blue and Green Water Flows in the Erhai Lake Basin of Southwest China.Water.11, 424. (2019).
22. Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Zheng, J.; Yang, M. Investigating Spatial and Temporal Variation of Hydrological Processes in Western China Driven by CMADS. Water. 11, 435. (2019).
23. Zhao, X.; Xu, S.; Liu, T.; Qiu, P.; Qin, G. Moisture Distribution in Sloping Black Soil Farmland during the Freeze–Thaw Period in Northeastern China. Water. 11, 536.(2019).
24. Liu, X.; Yang, M.; Meng, X.; Wen, F.; Sun, G. Assessing the Impact of Reservoir Parameters on Runoff in the Yalong River Basin using the SWAT Model. Water. 11, 643. (2019).
25.Zhao, F.; Wu, Y.Parameter Uncertainty Analysis of the SWAT Model in a MountainLoess Transitional Watershed on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Water.10, 690.(2018).
26.Zhang, L.; Meng, X*.; Wang, H*.; Yang, M.; Cai, S. Investigate the Applicability of CMADS and CFSR Reanalysis in Northeast China. Water. 12, 996. (2020).
27.Xu, X., Gao, P., Zhu, X., Guo, W., Ding, J. et al. Design of an integrated climatic assessment indicator (ICAI) for wheat production: a case study in Jiangsu province, china. Ecological indicators, 101, 943-953.(2019).

28.Yuan, X. F; Han,J.C, Shao, Y. et al.Geodetection analysis of the driving forces and mechanisms of erosion in the hilly-gully region of northern Shaanxi Province.Journal of Geographical Sciences. 29(5), 779-790.(2019).

29. Gao, X., Ming,G., Yang, Z. et al. Temperature dependence of extreme precipitation over mainland China. Journal of Hydrology. 583,124595.(2020).

30.Jiang, S. H., R. L. Liu, L. L. Ren, et al.  Evaluation and hydrological application of CMADS reanalysis precipitation data against four satellite precipitation products in the upper Huaihe River basin, China. J. Meteor. Res., 34(5), 1096–1113. (2020).

CMADS over East Asia
Download CMADS data

This website allows you to download CMADS data in SWAT file format for a given location and time period. In CMADS V1.0 (at a spatial resolution of 1/3°), East Asia was spatially divided into 195 × 300 grid points containing 58,500 stations. Despite being at the same time resolution as CMADS V1.0, CMADS V1.1 contains more data, with 260 × 400 grid points, containing 104,000 stations. CMADS V1.2 was gridded to 520 × 800 grid points containing 416,000 stations. For SWAT model users, we provide data include daily average relative humidity (fraction), daily accumulated 24-hour precipitation (mm), daily average solar radiation (MJ/m2), daily maximum and minimum temperature (℃), daily average wind speed (m/s). We also provide some additional data for other model users, include daily average atmospheric pressure (hPa), daily average temperature (℃), daily average specific humidity (g/kg), etc.

      As a condition of using CMADS, you must cite the following CMADS references:

1.Meng, X.Y.; Wang, H.; Chen, J. Profound Impacts of the China Meteorological Assimilation Dataset for SWAT model (CMADS). Water.11, 832. (2019).

2.Meng,X.Y.,Wang, H. Significance of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT Model (CMADS) of East Asia. Water. 9, (10),765. (2017).

3.Meng, X.; Wang, H.; Shi, C.; Wu, Y.; Ji, X.Establishment and Evaluation of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT Model (CMADS). Water. 10,1555. (2018).

4.Meng, X.; Zhang, X.; Yang, M.; Wang, H.; Chen, J.; Pan, Z.; Wu, Y. Application and Evaluation of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT Model (CMADS) in Poorly Gauged Regions in Western China. Water. 11, 2171.(2019).

5.Meng,X.Y.,Wang, H., et al. Investigating spatiotemporal changes of the land-surface processes in Xinjiang using high-resolution CLM3.5 and CLDAS: Soil temperature. Scientific Reports. 7, 13286.(2017).   

6.Meng, X., Wang, H., Chen, J. et al. High-resolution simulation and validation of soil moisture in the arid region of Northwest China. Scientific Reports. 9, 17227.(2019).

7.Zhang, L.; Meng, X*.; Wang, H*.; Yang, M.; Cai, S. Investigate the Applicability of CMADS and CFSR Reanalysis in Northeast China. Water. 12, 996. (2020).


      Please do not hesitate to mail us (xymeng@cau.edu.cn) if you need our assistance when you have problems using CMADS data.

Download CMADS V1.0
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CMADS V1.0

Total data: 49GB

Occupied space:49GB

Time: From year 2008 to year 2018

Time resolution: Daily

Geographical scope description: East Asia

Longitude: 60°E

The most east longitude: 160°E

North latitude: 65°N

Most southern latitude: 0°N

Number of stations: 58500 stations

Spatial resolution: 1/3 * 1/3 * grid points

Downlad CMADS V1.0 (BD-Cloud)‍‍

Downlad CMADS V1.0 (English)

Downlad CMADS V1.0 (Chinese)

Download CMADS V1.1
ABUIABACGAAgiJTz3QUohdez1gMw1wk4wQc

CMADS V1.1

Total data: 77GB

Occupied space: 77GB

Time: From year 2008 to year 2018

Time resolution: Daily

Geographical scope description: East Asia

Longitude: 60°E

The most east longitude: 160°E

North latitude: 65°N

Most southern latitude: 0°N

Number of stations: 104,000 stations

Spatial resolution: 1/4 * 1/4 * grid points

Download CMADS V1.1 (BD-Cloud)‍‍‍

Download CMADS V1.1 (English)

Download CMADS V1.1 (Chinese)


Download CMADS V1.2
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CMADS V1.2

Total data: 200GB

Occupied space: 200GB

Time: From year 2008 to year 2018

Time resolution: Daily

Geographical scope description: East Asia

Longitude: 60°E

The most east longitude: 160°E

North latitude: 65°N

Most southern latitude: 0°N

Number of stations: 416,000 stations

Spatial resolution: 1/8 * 1/8 * grid points

Download CMADS V1.2 (BD-Cloud)‍‍‍

Access code: CMAD


Download CMADS-L V1.0
ABUIABAEGAAg9Z77-gUovaetkAEwkQw4sAk

CMADS-L V1.0

Total data: 159GB

Occupied space: 159GB

Time: From year 1979 to year 2018

Time resolution: Daily

Geographical scope description: East Asia

Longitude: 60°E

The most east longitude: 160°E

North latitude: 65°N

Most southern latitude: 0°N

Number of stations: 58,500 stations

Spatial resolution: 1/3 * 1/3 * grid points

Download CMADS-L V1.0 (CMSS)


Download CMADS-L V1.1
ABUIABAEGAAgjqX7-gUouIaM7AcwkQw4sAk

CMADS-L V1.1

Total data: 350GB

Occupied space: 350GB

Time: From year 1979 to year 2018

Time resolution: Daily

Geographical scope description: East Asia

Longitude: 60°E

The most east longitude: 160°E

North latitude: 65°N

Most southern latitude: 0°N

Number of stations: 104,000 stations

Spatial resolution: 1/4 * 1/4 * grid points

Download CMADS-L V1.1 (CMSS)



Download CMADS-ST V1.0
ABUIABAEGAAg65Xz3QUoyobHrQIwtQg4zAY

CMADS-ST V1.0

Total data: 12GB

Occupied space: 12GB

Time: From year 2009 to year 2013

Time resolution: Daily

Geographical scope description: East Asia

Longitude: 60°E

The most east longitude: 160°E

North latitude: 65°N

Most southern latitude: 0°N

Number of stations: 58,500 stations

Spatial resolution: 1/3 * 1/3 * grid points

Download CMADS-ST V1.0 (BD-Cloud)

Download CMADS-ST V1.0 (English)

Download CMADS-ST V1.0 (Chinese)

CMADS Meteorological Service System (CMSS)

CMADS Meteorological Service System (CMSS)includes all versions of CMADS data (including CMADS-L 40 reanalysis data), please do not hesitate to register your account to extract the data you need.

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